Abalone – A clam-like animal with a colorful shell that lives in the Pacific Ocean.

Acorn – The seed of an oak tree. “Great oaks from little acorns grow.”

Antelope – A fast deer-like animal that lives in herds or groups on grassy plains.

Armband – A bracelet worn on the upper arm.

Awl – A tool with a handle and a sharp point for making holes in leather.

Baptize – Making a person a member of a Christian church by prayer and sprinkling water on them or dipping them in water. “The baby was baptized and named Margaret.”

Beaver – An animal with strong teeth and a flat tail that lives in rivers and lakes. “Beaver skins make a warm coat.”

Bedrock – Rocks so large that they are part of the earth and cannot be moved.

Belief – A thing people feel or think is true. “The belief that animals have spirits was part of Native American life.”

Bitterness – sharp bad taste

Boundary – The outside edge. “Do not cross the boundary of California into Mexico without a passport.”

Bow – A weapon used to shoot an arrow

Breechcloth – A piece of clothing like a skirt.

Buckskin – Leather made from the skin of a buck, or male deer. “The Yokuts made strong moccasins out of buckskin.”

Burden – Something that is carried. “The cradle basket on her back was a burden she carried easily.”

Burden baskets – Baskets used for carrying things

Canal – a large ditch for moving water from one place to another.

Ceremony – Special things done to celebrate an event. “Hunters had a ceremony to the spirits of the animals before they went on a hunt.”

Chief – Leader of a tribe or group of people. “The chief planned a hunting trip that the whole tribe would be part of.”

Communicate – to share information using language, signs or in other ways.

County seat – The city in a county where the county government offices are.

Cowrie – A small shell that was often used as money among the Indians of California.

Crop – a plant that is grown, or farmed, by farmers.

Dam – A wood, rock, or concrete structure that stops the water in a river, making alake.

Declare war – To say that there is a war between two countries. ” The United States declared war against Mexico to get control of California.”

Dough – Bread before it is cooked.

Elk – A large animal like a deer

Explorers – People who go to a place that is unknown or little known to find out more about it. “The Explorers from Europe found many Indians living in California.”

Foothills – low mountains next to high mountains. “We traveled through the foothills before we came to the snowy high peaks.”

Flour – ground seeds or grain that is used to make bread. “The Yokuts Indians ground acorns into flour in their mortars.”

Founded – Started by a government or other organization.

Freight – Things that are carried in a wagon or train car.

Freight car – A train car made to carry things, such as a box car.

Game – Animals people hunt for food. “There were many game birds at the lake, such as ducks and geese.”

Ghost town – a town where nobody lives any more.

Gold – A metal that is very expensive, used for money and to make jewlery.

Grain – Seeds grown as a crop and used for animal and human food.

Headband – A strap around the forehead used to help carrying heavy things, or a string around the head used to keep hair off the face and for decoration.

Headdress – A special type of hat or head covering.

Hereafter – The time and place some people believe comes after a person has died.

Inland – Away from the ocean. ” The San Joaquin Valley is inland, not near the coast.”

Irrigate – To water plants with water moved from another place.

Irrigation – Watering plants with water moved from another place.

Landmark – An important visible place that is used as a guide. “The Fox theatre is a landmark in Visalia.”

Leach – To soak with changes of water.

Livestock – Animals used for travel and in farming such as horses and cattle.

Mission – A place established by a church to teach religion to people. “The Spanish had 21 missions in California to teach Christianity to the Indians.”

Missionary – A person sent by the church to spread his or her religion to another place. “The missionaries taught Christianity to the Indians.”

Mortar – A bowl made of stone or clay for grinding seeds. “A pestle is used to grind grain in a mortar.”

Mountain Range – a group of mountains, usually in a long line. “The Sierra Nevada is the highest mountain range in California.”

Mush – Hot cereal made from ground grain or seeds.

Nourishing – Good for a person to eat

Oak – A kind of tree. “Oak trees are tall and have strong wood.”

Obsidian – A glass-like volcanic stone that can be chipped to a sharp edge.

Ox – a kind of bull or cow that is trained to work pulling wagons or plows.

Pestle – A stone hammer used to grind things in a mortar

Preserve – To save for later or for people who live after you. “The Fox Theatre has been preserved for the future.”

Produce – The things that farmers grow or make to eat, use, and sell.

Raft – A flat boat for carrying things

Rich – Full of energy giving fat and protein

Sacred – holy, religious

Saddle – a special seat that is tied, or cinched, to a horse for the rider to sit on.

Sawmill – a factory that saws logs from trees into boards for building.

Settlement – The place where settlers live. “Visalia was the largest settlement in the area.”

Settlers – People who come to a place to live. “The settlers built houses and started farming along the river.”

Shelter – A place to live or to stay out of the weather. “His tent was a shelter for the night.”

Snare – A trap made of string or rope

Soapstone – A soft stone used for carving

Soil – Dirt for farming, earth.

Stage or Stage line – A wagon for people to ride in and on that was pulled by horses and traveled on a regular schedule, like a bus today. ” I bought a ticket and rode on the stage to San Francisco from Visalia.”

Stagecoach – the wagon that the horses pull in a stage line.

Stalk – To sneak quietly up on an animal.

Territory – A large area of land. “Their territory stretched from the mountains to Tulare Lake.”

Trade – To exchange one thing for another. “The Yokuts traded deer skins for shells from the ocean.”

Tradition – A belief or a custom that is handed down from parents to children.

Transportation – moving people or things from place to place. ” When trains came to Tulare County they were a very fast form of transportation.”

Trap – To catch animals. “The man trapped squirrels in a box baited with seeds.”

Tribal government – The people and the rules that control a tribe.

Tribe – A group of families living together under one leader or chief. “The whole tribe of twenty families gathered for a feast.”

Tulare Lake – A very large, shallow lake in southern Tulare County. It is usually dry now.

Tules – A kind of tall thin plant that grows along rivers and lakes. “Yokuts Indians used tules to weave baskets.”

Wheat – a seed or grain that is used to make flour for bread and cereal.