Abalone – A clam-like animal with a colorful shell that lives in the Pacific Ocean.
Acorn – The seed of an oak tree. “Great oaks from little acorns grow.”
Antelope – A fast deer-like animal that lives in herds or groups on grassy plains.
Armband – A bracelet worn on the upper arm.
Awl – A tool with a handle and a sharp point for making holes in leather.
Baptize – Making a person a member of a Christian church by prayer and sprinkling water on them or dipping them in water. “The baby was baptized and named Margaret.”
Beaver – An animal with strong teeth and a flat tail that lives in rivers and lakes. “Beaver skins make a warm coat.”
Bedrock – Rocks so large that they are part of the earth and cannot be moved.
Belief – A thing people feel or think is true. “The belief that animals have spirits was part of Native American life.”
Bitterness – sharp bad taste
Boundary – The outside edge. “Do not cross the boundary of California into Mexico without a passport.”
Bow – A weapon used to shoot an arrow
Breechcloth – A piece of clothing like a skirt.
Buckskin – Leather made from the skin of a buck, or male deer. “The Yokuts made strong moccasins out of buckskin.”
Burden – Something that is carried. “The cradle basket on her back was a burden she carried easily.”
Burden baskets – Baskets used for carrying things
Canal – a large ditch for moving water from one place to another.
Ceremony – Special things done to celebrate an event. “Hunters had a ceremony to the spirits of the animals before they went on a hunt.”
Chief – Leader of a tribe or group of people. “The chief planned a hunting trip that the whole tribe would be part of.”
Communicate – to share information using language, signs or in other ways.
County seat – The city in a county where the county government offices are.
Cowrie – A small shell that was often used as money among the Indians of California.
Crop – a plant that is grown, or farmed, by farmers.
Dam – A wood, rock, or concrete structure that stops the water in a river, making alake.
Declare war – To say that there is a war between two countries. ” The United States declared war against Mexico to get control of California.”
Dough – Bread before it is cooked.
Elk – A large animal like a deer
Explorers – People who go to a place that is unknown or little known to find out more about it. “The Explorers from Europe found many Indians living in California.”
Foothills – low mountains next to high mountains. “We traveled through the foothills before we came to the snowy high peaks.”
Flour – ground seeds or grain that is used to make bread. “The Yokuts Indians ground acorns into flour in their mortars.”
Founded – Started by a government or other organization.
Freight – Things that are carried in a wagon or train car.
Freight car – A train car made to carry things, such as a box car.
Game – Animals people hunt for food. “There were many game birds at the lake, such as ducks and geese.”
Ghost town – a town where nobody lives any more.
Gold – A metal that is very expensive, used for money and to make jewlery.
Grain – Seeds grown as a crop and used for animal and human food.
Headband – A strap around the forehead used to help carrying heavy things, or a string around the head used to keep hair off the face and for decoration.
Headdress – A special type of hat or head covering.
Hereafter – The time and place some people believe comes after a person has died.
Inland – Away from the ocean. ” The San Joaquin Valley is inland, not near the coast.”
Irrigate – To water plants with water moved from another place.
Irrigation – Watering plants with water moved from another place.
Landmark – An important visible place that is used as a guide. “The Fox theatre is a landmark in Visalia.”
Leach – To soak with changes of water.
Livestock – Animals used for travel and in farming such as horses and cattle.
Mission – A place established by a church to teach religion to people. “The Spanish had 21 missions in California to teach Christianity to the Indians.”
Missionary – A person sent by the church to spread his or her religion to another place. “The missionaries taught Christianity to the Indians.”
Mortar – A bowl made of stone or clay for grinding seeds. “A pestle is used to grind grain in a mortar.”
Mountain Range – a group of mountains, usually in a long line. “The Sierra Nevada is the highest mountain range in California.”
Mush – Hot cereal made from ground grain or seeds.
Nourishing – Good for a person to eat
Oak – A kind of tree. “Oak trees are tall and have strong wood.”
Obsidian – A glass-like volcanic stone that can be chipped to a sharp edge.
Ox – a kind of bull or cow that is trained to work pulling wagons or plows.
Pestle – A stone hammer used to grind things in a mortar
Preserve – To save for later or for people who live after you. “The Fox Theatre has been preserved for the future.”
Produce – The things that farmers grow or make to eat, use, and sell.
Raft – A flat boat for carrying things
Rich – Full of energy giving fat and protein
Sacred – holy, religious
Saddle – a special seat that is tied, or cinched, to a horse for the rider to sit on.
Sawmill – a factory that saws logs from trees into boards for building.
Settlement – The place where settlers live. “Visalia was the largest settlement in the area.”
Settlers – People who come to a place to live. “The settlers built houses and started farming along the river.”
Shelter – A place to live or to stay out of the weather. “His tent was a shelter for the night.”
Snare – A trap made of string or rope
Soapstone – A soft stone used for carving
Soil – Dirt for farming, earth.
Stage or Stage line – A wagon for people to ride in and on that was pulled by horses and traveled on a regular schedule, like a bus today. ” I bought a ticket and rode on the stage to San Francisco from Visalia.”
Stagecoach – the wagon that the horses pull in a stage line.
Stalk – To sneak quietly up on an animal.
Territory – A large area of land. “Their territory stretched from the mountains to Tulare Lake.”
Trade – To exchange one thing for another. “The Yokuts traded deer skins for shells from the ocean.”
Tradition – A belief or a custom that is handed down from parents to children.
Transportation – moving people or things from place to place. ” When trains came to Tulare County they were a very fast form of transportation.”
Trap – To catch animals. “The man trapped squirrels in a box baited with seeds.”
Tribal government – The people and the rules that control a tribe.
Tribe – A group of families living together under one leader or chief. “The whole tribe of twenty families gathered for a feast.”
Tulare Lake – A very large, shallow lake in southern Tulare County. It is usually dry now.
Tules – A kind of tall thin plant that grows along rivers and lakes. “Yokuts Indians used tules to weave baskets.”
Wheat – a seed or grain that is used to make flour for bread and cereal.